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Human Odyssey: The Germanic Runes
The Germanic Runes are letters which were based on an ancient European alphabet. First evidence of the runic language appeared on stone monuments around north-western Europe at 150 BC.
However, Germanic mythology takes the origins of this language back even further. These pagan runes were known as ‘the Elder Futhark’ and legend says was written by the God Wodan (as early as 250 BC). The myth states that he hanged himself from a great tree for nine days and nine nights, entering a trance-like state where the mysteries of the cosmos were revealed to him.
In the minds of the Germanic people, these runes were far more than just a language. In old English, the word rune means ‘mystery’, and each symbol was said to represent a sound that resonated with the ‘other world’.
Each rune contained a mystery, which legend says could unlock a magical effect. By etching a rune onto an item, such as a sword, armour or wand, the pagans claimed it would become enchanted with great power.
This mysterious language was used by the Pagans for nearly a thousand years before being replaced by Latin when Europe was Christianised at 700 AD.
Connectors and linkers
El uso adecuado de conectores es muy valorado por los examinadores. Pero, ojo, puede ser una arma de doble filo ya que si están bien colocados y en armonía con el registro de tu texto, mejoran sin duda la cohesión del mismo; sin embargo, pueden comprometer en gran medida la coherencia y cohesión si se incluyen erróneamente o hay una sobrecarga de linkers. Quizás por insistir machaconamente en la conveniencia de utilizar connectors, l@s alumn@s se obsesionan tanto que los incluyen sí, pero sin orden ni concierto, y el resultado es que a veces hay tal saturación que en un párrafo se encuentran casi más conectores que ideas desarrolladas. Por tanto, recuerda que vale más un texto con ideas que tengan sentido y presentadas con un orden lógico que otro que carezca de sentido por muchas linking words que tenga.
Dicho esto, en este listado tienes algunas sugerencias de connectors, linkers ylinking words ( Fuente: © Bon’s tips ):
- a) Introducción
- b) Primer párrafo
At first sight A primera vista
First of all Antes que nada
In the first place En primer lugar
To start with Para empezar
- c) Segundo párrafo
In the second place, En segundo lugar,
Secondly, En segundo lugar,
Thirdly, En tercer lugar,
- d) Conclusión
Finally, Por último,
In conclusion, Para concluir,
Lastly, Por último,
- AÑADIR INFORMACIÓN
and eventually, y finalmente,
apart from + noun aparte de + sustantivo
besides , además, “encima”. Ojo al utilizar besides como adverbio. Haz clic aquí para verlo.
in addition to + noun además de + sustantivo
in addition, además,
on top of that, además,
what’s more, además; lo que es más,
another point is that habría que añadir que
3. EXPRESAR SIMILARIDAD
Similarly, Igualmente, de forma similar,
Likewise, Asimismo, del mismo modo,
In the same way, Del mismo modo,
In the same manner, De la misma manera,
In a similar way, De forma similar,
- ESTABLECER UN CONTRASTE
however, sin embargo
instead of en vez de
neverthelesss, no obstante
on the contrary, por el contrario
whereas / while mientras
though / although aunque
On the one hand, On the other hand, Por una parte, Por otra parte,
Conversely A la inversa, por el contrario
- EXPLICAR CAUSAS
because of + noun A causa de + sustantivo
due to + noun Debido a + sustantivo
due to the fact that + sentence Debido a que + oración
for this/that reason Por esta/esa razón
on account of + noun A causa de + sustantivo
- EXPLICAR RESULTADOS
as a result Como resultado, en consecuencia
consequently En consecuencia
therefore Por lo tanto
- EXPRESAR ALGO DE OTRA MANERA
in other words, en otras palabras,
in short, en resumen,
that is (to say), es decir,
- EXPRESAR HECHOS
actually En realidad
as a matter of fact De hecho
in fact De hecho
really En realidad
- EXPRESAR UNA OPINIÓN PERSONAL
as far as I’m concerned por lo que a mí respecta
from my point of view desde mi punto de vista
I agree / disagree estoy de acuerdo / no estoy de acuerdo
in my opinion en mi opinión
in my view en mi opinión
I think (that) Creo que
it is true that es verdad que
to be honest, para ser honesto
to tell the truth, a decir verdad
10. MODIFICAR LO QUE SE ESTÁ DICIENDO
above all sobre todo
at least al menos
basically básicamente, fundamentalmente
essentially esencialmente, básicamente
in general en general
By and large, Por lo general,
Generally speaking, En general,
in particular en particular
more or less más o menos
on the whole en general
to a certain extent hasta cierto punto
11. PONER EJEMPLOS
,and so on. etcétera
and so on and so forth etcétera, y así sucesivamente
for example, por ejemplo,
for instance, por ejemplo,
such as tal(es) como
12. RESUMIR LO QUE SE HA DICHO
All in all, En conjunto, resumiendo
In brief, En resumen
In conclusion, Para concluir
In short, En resumen
On the whole, En general
To sum up, Para resumir
13. SECUENCIAR LA NARRACIÓN
after that después de eso
all of a sudden de repente,
first of all en primer lugar
in the end al final
in the meantime, mientras tanto
meanwhile mientras tanto
suddenly de repente,
then entonces, después
Haz clic aquí para ver más.
Recomiendo este vídeo-tutorial sobre cómo utilizar los elementos cohesivos en un escrito (aquí los denomina “transition words and phrases“).
Linking expressions exercises
> Aunque se den traducciones aproximadas de los conectores al español, muchas veces se nos escapan matices que es conveniente conocer para poder utilizar estos elementos cohesivos de manera precisa. En esta web podrás encontrar un valioso material que te guiará en este propósito. Además trata otros aspectos importantes de la expresión escrita, tales como el estilo, la puntuación y la gramática. ¡Está genial, no te lo puedes perder!
Más enlaces útiles:
Linking words 1
Linking words 2
Linkers in context
Isaac Asimov, one of the most prolific creators in science-fiction history, wrote or edited more than 500 books in his lifetime, including the high-profile ones we all recognize like I, Robot and the Foundation series (hear a version dramatized here). But which piece of this massive body of work did Asimov himself consider his favorite? Always a fan of clarity, the man didn’t leave that issue shrouded in mystery: the honor belongs to “The Last Question,” which first appeared in the November 1956 issue of Science Fiction Quarterly. It’s now available in Isaac Asimov: The Complete Stories, Vol. 1.
“Why is it my favorite?” Asimov later wrote. “For one thing I got the idea all at once and didn’t have to fiddle with it; and I wrote it in white-heat and scarcely had to change a word. This sort of thing endears any story to any writer.” But it also had, and continues to have, “the strangest effect on my readers. Frequently someone writes to ask me if I can give them the name of a story, which they ‘think’ I may have written, and tell them where to find it. They don’t remember the title but when they describe the story it is invariably ‘The Last Question.’”
Para mas informacion sobre como aprender inglés y clases, ponerse en contacto con el autor
Download comics, magazines, newspapers, ebooks and films in German, French, English, Italian and Spanish.
The dreaded asteroid ‘Apophis’ Earth approaches
The dreaded asteroid ‘Apophis’ Earth approaches. In Egyptian mythology, ‘Apophis’ was a god who personified the forces of evil and posed a threat to the order. Represented as a huge snake that lived in the waters of Nile, the Egyptians believed that eclipses were his doing. ‘Apophis’ is also the name that was named an asteroid more than 300 meters in diameter that scientists study with great interest because, according to his calculations, there is a risk, albeit remote, that hitting earth in the next decades. More likely it is to cause damage to communications satellites orbiting 36,000 kilometers away.
In the last hours, the asteroid is approaching Earth at a distance that is allowing astronomers to collect new data to study and calculate the best path in order to find out how much a threat to our planet. The time of closest approach, about 14.5 million kilometers, will occur during the night of Wednesday to Thursday, without imposing any danger to Earth. (By way of comparison, the moon is about 385,000 kilometers away from Earth).
Visits in 2029 and 2036
According to calculations of scientists, ‘99942 Apophis ‘, which was discovered in 2004 and was formerly known by the name MN4 ‘2004’, rub our planet on April 13, 2029, reaching some 30,000 kilometers away, but discarded which may cause a collision with the Earth at that time. However, it will be a real danger for geostationary satellites, which orbit at that distance.
More worrying seems the approach to our planet that the asteroid will in 2036. It is still early to know what his career that year and so far, they can only give probabilities. The chances of occurrence of an impact with Earth is very low, but still can not rule out a shock.
In 2004, when the asteroid was discovered, it was estimated that there was a 2.7% chance of a collision with Earth in 2029. However, the measurements were carried out subsequently discarded impacts that might occur.
Protecting the Earth
During its approach to Earth, the last weekend, the Herschel telescope of the European Space Agency (ESA) for two hours captured new images of ‘Apophis’, which revealed that this celestial body is larger than previously calculated. It was thought that was 270 meters in diameter. According ESA is 325 meters, a 20% more.
If an asteroid that size slammed into Earth, causing damage would be equivalent to the explosion of 25,000 atomic bombs of Hiroshima.
Fortunately, the impact of large celestial objects on Earth is a very rare phenomenon, but represents a real threat to our planet. Well aware of the dinosaurs, which became extinct 65 million years since the fall of a large meteorite.
Therefore, space agencies permanently monitor the cosmos to locate and track asteroids that could pose a danger to our planet.
‘Apophis’ is now considered one of the most disturbing objects in the medium term, as in 2029 and 2036 will occur the following approaches to Earth. Although it hits the Earth, could cause major economic losses by destroying orbiting satellites thousands of miles from Earth.
Russia is one of the most active countries in preparing a plan for the possible threat of ‘Apophis’. In the coming years plans to send a satellite to this asteroid for more accurate tracking of his career and has also raised a landing on its surface.
Furthermore, the mission ‘Don Quixote’ of ESA focused on the study of ‘Apophis’ to develop solutions that enable deflect the trajectory of an asteroid impact and avoid both the Earth as damage to communications satellites.
The approach to Earth ‘Apophis’ Wednesday will be a good opportunity for astronomers to better assess the risk that this celestial object will in the future for our planet.
On 15 February, astronomers will have the opportunity to observe much more closely to another asteroid. D414 is ‘2012 ‘, a celestial object is 57 meters in diameter, according to calculations of scientists, will be located just 34,500 kilometers away from our planet.
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Series for beginners
EXTRA ENGLISH Episode 1 Hector’s Arrival, WITH SUBTITLES
Sitcom divertida con la que aprender inglés para principiantes.
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Expresiones inglés – español
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