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5fc22-imagesRECURSOS Y EXAMENES DEL CAMBRIGDE Y EOI

Aprende a aprender inglés (e-book)

A1 New English File Beginner Student’s Book

Audios del Student´s Book para descargar

A1 New English File Beginner work’s Book

New English File web training

Material y Audios para descargar A1-B1

Cambridge muestras examenes A1-C2

Exámenes certificación de la EOI A1-B2

Modelos y examenes para el FIRST VOL.1

1 Essential Grammar in Use – 3rd_Edition

2_Cambridge English Grammar in Use – 3rd edition

3 Advanced Grammar in Use – 3rd_Edition

Como preparar el WRITING para el B2 o C1 de la EOI, Ejemplos y ayudas, y muchisimo material mas.

Toda la gramatica online en www.inglessencillo.com

Toda la gramatica online en www.shertonenglish.com

vykthors.wordpress.com/vocabulary

tablacambridge

english

The world’s languages, in 7 maps and charts

1
Human Odyssey
: The Germanic Runes

The Germanic Runes are letters which were based on an ancient European alphabet. First evidence of the runic language appeared on stone monuments around north-western Europe at 150 BC.

However, Germanic mythology takes the origins of this language back even further. These pagan runes were known as ‘the Elder Futhark’ and legend says was written by the God Wodan (as early as 250 BC). The myth states that he hanged himself from a great tree for nine days and nine nights, entering a trance-like state where the mysteries of the cosmos were revealed to him.

In the minds of the Germanic people, these runes were far more than just a language. In old English, the word rune means ‘mystery’, and each symbol was said to represent a sound that resonated with the ‘other world’.

Each rune contained a mystery, which legend says could unlock a magical effect. By etching a rune onto an item, such as a sword, armour or wand, the pagans claimed it would become enchanted with great power.

This mysterious language was used by the Pagans for nearly a thousand years before being replaced by Latin when Europe was Christianised at 700 AD.

Connectors and linkers

Captura (1)

El uso adecuado de conectores es muy valorado por los examinadores.  Pero, ojo, puede ser una arma de doble filo ya que si están bien colocados y en armonía con el registro de tu texto, mejoran sin duda la cohesión del mismo; sin embargo, pueden comprometer en gran medida la coherencia y cohesión si se incluyen erróneamente o hay una sobrecarga de linkers. Quizás por insistir machaconamente en la conveniencia de utilizar connectors,  l@s alumn@s se obsesionan tanto que los incluyen sí, pero sin orden ni concierto, y el resultado es que a veces hay tal saturación que en un párrafo se encuentran casi más conectores que ideas desarrolladas. Por tanto, recuerda que vale más un texto con ideas que tengan sentido y presentadas con un orden lógico que otro que carezca de sentido por muchas linking words que tenga.

Dicho esto, en este listado tienes algunas sugerencias de connectors, linkers ylinking words ( Fuente: © Bon’s tips  ):

  1.       CONSTRUIR LA REDACCIÓNconectores-english
  1. a) Introducción
  1. b) Primer párrafo

At first sight                                      A primera vista

First of all                                          Antes que nada

In the first place                                En primer lugar

To start with                                      Para empezar

  1. c) Segundo párrafo

In the second place,                          En segundo lugar,

Second,                                              Segundo,

Secondly,                                           En segundo lugar,

Third,                                                 Tercero,

Thirdly,                                              En tercer lugar,

  1. d) Conclusión

Finally,                                               Por último,

In conclusion,                                    Para concluir,

Lastly,                                                Por último,

  1.      AÑADIR INFORMACIÓN

and eventually,                                  y finalmente,

apart from + noun                              aparte de + sustantivo

besides ,                                            además, “encima”. Ojo al utilizar besides como adverbio. Haz clic aquí para verlo.

in addition to + noun                          además de + sustantivo

in addition,                                         además,

moreover,                                          además,
furthermore                                       asimismo
also                                                    también

on top of that,                                    además,

what’s more,                                      además; lo que es más,
another point is that                          habría que añadir que

3.         EXPRESAR SIMILARIDAD

Similarly,                                            Igualmente, de forma similar,
Likewise,                                           Asimismo, del mismo modo,
In the same way,                                Del mismo modo,
In the same manner,                          De la misma manera,

In a similar way,                                 De forma similar,

  1.         ESTABLECER UN CONTRASTE

however,                                            sin embargo

instead of                                           en vez de

neverthelesss,                                   no obstante

on the contrary,                                 por el contrario

whereas / while                                  mientras

though / although                              aunque

On the one hand,       On the other hand,     Por una parte,     Por otra parte,
Conversely                                         A la inversa, por el contrario

  1.         EXPLICAR CAUSAS

because of + noun                              A causa de + sustantivo

due to + noun                                     Debido a + sustantivo

due to the fact that + sentence           Debido a que + oración

for this/that reason                            Por esta/esa razón

on account of + noun                         A causa de + sustantivo

  1.         EXPLICAR RESULTADOS

as a result                                          Como resultado, en consecuencia

consequently                                     En consecuencia

therefore                                           Por lo tanto

  1.         EXPRESAR ALGO DE OTRA MANERA

in other words,                                  en otras palabras,

in short,                                             en resumen,

that is (to say),                                   es decir,

  1.         EXPRESAR HECHOS

actually                                              En realidad

as a matter of fact                             De hecho

in fact                                                De hecho

really                                                 En realidad

  1.         EXPRESAR UNA OPINIÓN PERSONAL

as far as I’m concerned                   por lo que a mí respecta

from my point of view                      desde mi punto de vista

I agree / disagree                            estoy de acuerdo / no estoy de acuerdo

in my opinion                                   en mi opinión

in my view                                        en mi opinión

I think (that)                                    Creo que

it is true that                                    es verdad que

personally                                        personalmente

to be honest,                                    para ser honesto

to tell the truth,                               a decir verdad

10.        MODIFICAR LO QUE SE ESTÁ DICIENDO

above all                                          sobre todo

at least                                             al menos

basically                                           básicamente, fundamentalmente

especially                                         especialmente

essentially                                        esencialmente, básicamente

in general                                         en general
By and large,                                    Por lo general,
Generally speaking,                         En general,

in particular                                      en particular

more or less                                     más o menos

on the whole                                     en general

to a certain extent                            hasta cierto punto

11.    PONER EJEMPLOS

,and so on.                                       etcétera
and so on and so forth                     etcétera, y así sucesivamente

for example,                                     por ejemplo,

for instance,                                     por ejemplo,

such as                                             tal(es) como

12.      RESUMIR LO QUE SE HA DICHO

All in all,                                          En conjunto, resumiendo

In brief,                                            En resumen

In conclusion,                                  Para concluir

In short,                                           En resumen

On the whole,                                  En general

To sum up,                                      Para resumir

13.      SECUENCIAR LA NARRACIÓN

after that                                           después de eso

all of a sudden                                  de repente,

finally                                                finalmente

first of all                                          en primer lugar

in the end                                         al final

in the meantime,                              mientras tanto

meanwhile                                        mientras tanto

next                                                  luego

suddenly                                           de repente,

then                                                  entonces, después

while                                                 mientras

Haz clic aquí para ver más.

Recomiendo este vídeo-tutorial sobre cómo utilizar los elementos cohesivos en un escrito (aquí los denomina “transition words and phrases“).

Linking expressions exercises

 > Aunque se den traducciones aproximadas de los conectores al español, muchas veces se nos escapan matices que es conveniente conocer para poder utilizar estos elementos cohesivos de manera precisaEn esta web podrás encontrar un valioso material que te guiará en este propósito. Además trata otros aspectos importantes de la expresión escrita, tales como el estilo, la puntuación y la gramática. ¡Está genial, no te lo puedes perder!

Más enlaces útiles:

Linking words 1
Linking words 2
Linkers in context

 

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Audios

Free: Isaac Asimov’s Epic Foundation Trilogy Dramatized in Classic Audio

Hear Radio Dramas of Isaac Asimov’sFoundation Trilogy & 7 Classic Asimov Stories

Isaac Asimov’s Favorite Story “The Last Question” Read by Isaac Asimov— and by Leonard Nimoy

Isaac Asimov, one of the most prolific creators in science-fiction history, wrote or edited more than 500 books in his lifetime, including the high-profile ones we all recognize like I, Robot and the Foundation series (hear a version dramatized here). But which piece of this massive body of work did Asimov himself consider his favorite? Always a fan of clarity, the man didn’t leave that issue shrouded in mystery: the honor belongs to “The Last Question,” which first appeared in the November 1956 issue of Science Fiction Quarterly. It’s now available in Isaac Asimov: The Complete Stories, Vol. 1.

“Why is it my favorite?” Asimov later wrote. “For one thing I got the idea all at once and didn’t have to fiddle with it; and I wrote it in white-heat and scarcely had to change a word. This sort of thing endears any story to any writer.” But it also had, and continues to have, “the strangest effect on my readers. Frequently someone writes to ask me if I can give them the name of a story, which they ‘think’ I may have written, and tell them where to find it. They don’t remember the title but when they describe the story it is invariably ‘The Last Question.’”

dictionaries

APRENDER Y PRACTICAR , DICCIONARIOS

The dreaded asteroid ‘Apophis’ Earth approaches

0eb54-pennyc2b4scuotesThe dreaded asteroid ‘Apophis’ Earth approaches. In Egyptian mythology, ‘Apophis’ was a god who personified the forces of evil and posed a threat to the order. Represented as a huge snake that lived in the waters of Nile, the Egyptians believed that eclipses were his doing. ‘Apophis’ is also the name that was named an asteroid more than 300 meters in diameter that scientists study with great interest because, according to his calculations, there is a risk, albeit remote, that hitting earth in the next decades. More likely it is to cause damage to communications satellites orbiting 36,000 kilometers away.

In the last hours, the asteroid is approaching Earth at a distance that is allowing astronomers to collect new data to study and calculate the best path in order to find out how much a threat to our planet. The time of closest approach, about 14.5 million kilometers, will occur during the night of Wednesday to Thursday, without imposing any danger to Earth. (By way of comparison, the moon is about 385,000 kilometers away from Earth).

Visits in 2029 and 2036

According to calculations of scientists, ‘99942 Apophis ‘, which was discovered in 2004 and was formerly known by the name MN4 ‘2004’, rub our planet on April 13, 2029, reaching some 30,000 kilometers away, but discarded which may cause a collision with the Earth at that time. However, it will be a real danger for geostationary satellites, which orbit at that distance.

More worrying seems the approach to our planet that the asteroid will in 2036. It is still early to know what his career that year and so far, they can only give probabilities. The chances of occurrence of an impact with Earth is very low, but still can not rule out a shock.

In 2004, when the asteroid was discovered, it was estimated that there was a 2.7% chance of a collision with Earth in 2029. However, the measurements were carried out subsequently discarded impacts that might occur.

Protecting the Earth

During its approach to Earth, the last weekend, the Herschel telescope of the European Space Agency (ESA) for two hours captured new images of ‘Apophis’, which revealed that this celestial body is larger than previously calculated. It was thought that was 270 meters in diameter. According ESA is 325 meters, a 20% more.

If an asteroid that size slammed into Earth, causing damage would be equivalent to the explosion of 25,000 atomic bombs of Hiroshima.

Fortunately, the impact of large celestial objects on Earth is a very rare phenomenon, but represents a real threat to our planet. Well aware of the dinosaurs, which became extinct 65 million years since the fall of a large meteorite.

Therefore, space agencies permanently monitor the cosmos to locate and track asteroids that could pose a danger to our planet.

‘Apophis’ is now considered one of the most disturbing objects in the medium term, as in 2029 and 2036 will occur the following approaches to Earth. Although it hits the Earth, could cause major economic losses by destroying orbiting satellites thousands of miles from Earth.

Russia is one of the most active countries in preparing a plan for the possible threat of ‘Apophis’. In the coming years plans to send a satellite to this asteroid for more accurate tracking of his career and has also raised a landing on its surface.

Furthermore, the mission ‘Don Quixote’ of ESA focused on the study of ‘Apophis’ to develop solutions that enable deflect the trajectory of an asteroid impact and avoid both the Earth as damage to communications satellites.

The approach to Earth ‘Apophis’ Wednesday will be a good opportunity for astronomers to better assess the risk that this celestial object will in the future for our planet.

On 15 February, astronomers will have the opportunity to observe much more closely to another asteroid. D414 is ‘2012 ‘, a celestial object is 57 meters in diameter, according to calculations of scientists, will be located just 34,500 kilometers away from our planet.

1 how to learn

—————– & ——————

2 foreing language

VIDEOS

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EXTRA ENGLISH Episode 1 Hector’s Arrival, WITH SUBTITLES

Sitcom divertida con la que aprender inglés para principiantes.

lista de episodios para ver on-line

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